Object oriented html

October 11th, 2014

There is quite a buzz nowadays (2014) for functional programming and so we all try to move our thinking in a more functional way. Still, the object oriented approach seems to be the easiest way to understand and so to program at the end. The object oriented programming can be applied to any structural schematic. One of that structures though that we tend to forget is html. So, let's try to visualize it.

What is an html object

It is not that hard if you think of it as something that you allready know which is the DOM. If you've written a little bit of javascript you've interacted with it in order to bind functionality to your presentation layer. But it is not only about javascript. To simplify things, think of every html tag as an object. Object composition allows objects to contain other objects and there for you can have your document object to contain your paragraph object (p) which contains a banch of text.

Object signatures may differ based on the type of the html element they describe but they all share some functionality. We can easily find out that the interface below describes all the known html elements:

interface Node {
  getClassNames(): List<String>
  getChilds(): List<Node>
  getParent(): Node

Now the way we represent markup to objects is straigh forward and is not the part of this article. What I am more interested in is this getClassNames() part which can be easily misunderstood. Every html element can have a class attribute where the user can put as many space separated classes as he wants. These classes are then accessible by this getClassNames() method.

A css example

This is the most important method for us, as developers, as it gives a binding point for styling and behaviour. This can be used in order to add css classes and define the style of the object. As an example, let's look at this markup:

<div class="main article white">
  <h1>The header of the article</h1>
  <p>lorem ipsum</p>

In our pseudocode world, the result of the mainArticleDiv.getClassNames() whould be the list: ['main', 'article', 'white']. But this list is not just another attribute of our div. It describes some of the div's functionality (styling) and therefor it looks more like metadata of the mainArticleDiv's interface rather than data of the interface. Since it is metadata, a list within our class is not the right way to describe them.

Let's make a pause here and go back to our computer science world and specifically to object oriented programming. There you can find the term mixin which is actually a way to describe a part of the functionality of an object. Assuming that the browser creates a mixin for every defined css class of ours and the fact that Node itself can be a mixin implemented by the browser, we can then describe our div with a class:

class MainArticle extends Node, CssMain, CssArticle, CssWhite {
  //Nothing to implement

and our Node interface becomes simpler:

interface Node {
  getChilds(): List<Node>
  getParent(): Node

Now everything looks simpler. You have to still write the metadata in html as we just did, but at least we now can give a representation of an html element in an object oriented way.

Javascript: behaviour mixins

Now that we can style our node with css mixins, what about adding some behaviour there? This is where javascript is comming. So let's say that we have a <button/> that we would like to use in order to show an alert to the user. Assuming that our button is also styled, we can describe this button with the following pseudo class:

class AlertMessageButton extends Node, CssButton, CssMessage, AlertMessageAction {
  //Nothing to implement

In html that would be something like the below:

<button class="button message action-alert-message">Alert!</button>

and now all we have to do is to somehow implement this AlertMessageAction mixin. And that would be kinda easy:

function alertMessage(msg) {

Now all that left is to bind that mixin to the elements's action-alert-message class. There is no standart way doing that but with jquery we can do it pretty easy:


But let's pimp our example a little bit more. As you see our mixin needs a msg to show. That means that our AlertMessageButtton should implement a getAlertMessage method or have an alertMessage field (we do not care about how we represent that on the class base). Well what about tweaking a little bit our html:

<button class="button message action-alert-message" data-alert-message="Hi!">Alert!</button>

And now we are done. We have the classname of our object, the mixins that it is implementing and also some fields with data. Sounds like a proper instance to me.

One last thing to take care would be the actuall binding of the mixins to the element. The styling is something that our browser takes care of, but the behaviour is something that we should deal with. For that we have to use the hooks provided by our browser and just add our behaviour. With jQuery that would be something like:

$(function (){ //on document load

  // bind our function to the click event of the .action-alert-message
  $(document).on('click', '.action-alert-message', function() {
    var msg = $(this).data('alert-message');


And I guess we are done! Do not try to hack stuff arround anymore. Use classes and mixins the way you should (even if they are kind of restrictive as they are in our html world).

But why not to use data atributes as mixin names

Well, I believe that this is an opiniated question and therefor I can only give an opiniated answer. Many frameworks are going that way, trying to let the user work with classes in a css central way. My answer to that is why not do the same with css? Why not use data attributes to style your elements?

As I can not find a straight answer to my question, let's say that I just like to have everything properly grouped. Therefor I use the class attribute to define the characteristics of an element and data attribute to give actual data to the element. It just looks much more logical to me, but still opiniated.


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